The Maremma Sheepdog has two names in its native Italy because for centuries the shepherd dogs spent from June until October in the Abruzzi, where there was good summer grazing, and from October until June in the Maremma. Called both Pastore Abruzzese and Pastore Maremmano, some people thought that they were two different breeds. Then, about 25 years ago at a meeting in Florence, the eminent judge, Professor Giuseppe Solaro, drew up a single breed standard under the name of Pastore Maremmano Abruzzes. The Maremma has never worked sheep like the Border Collie, but defended the flock against wolves and bears. The first record of a Maremma Sheepdog appeared 2000 years ago when Columella (c. AD65) made reference to a white dog and Marcus Varro (116-27BC) produced a standard for a sheepdog almost identical to that for the Maremma of today. The breed has been known in the United Kingdom since 1872. Character and care. The Maremma is a natural guard that will never forget a kindness or any injury. To quote an Italian expert, "If you want obedience and submission keep away from out breed, but if you appreciate friendship given and received, a trace of humor and much teaching of the lore of the wild, a typical Maremmano is the best you can have." The Maremma should be regularly groomed using a wire dog brush and, occasionally, a good cleansing powder.
*** The Maremma and
Abruzzes shepherd dog is a large dog, strongly built of a rustic (hardy)
appearance, at the same time majestic and really typical. On the whole,
his shape, of average proportions, is that of a heavy dog, whose body is
longer than the height at the withers; it is harmonious as to form (heterometric)
and relatively harmonious in outline (halloidism) Important Proportions:
The length of the head is four tenths of the height at the withers; the
body length is greater than the height at the withers by one eighteenth.
Depth of the body is slightly less than half the height at the withers.
(For instance: for a dog of 68 cm, the depth is about 32 cm.)
Quintano ** Parcodaini
*** It is a shepherd
dog used mainly for the protection of flocks and guarding property. (See
also under General Appearance and Temperament.)
TEMPERAMENT *** His principal function as a guard and defence dog of flocks and property in general, shows itself in the manner in which he accomplishes these tasks, with perception, courage and decision. Although proud and not inclined to submission, he is also devoted to his master and all his entourage.
*** On the whole, the
head is large and flat, of conical shape, reminiscent of that of a polar
bear. Skull: Is of great width with the sides of the skull slightly
rounded; in profile it is also convex. The upper longitudinal axes of
the skull and muzzle are slightly divergent from each other, which makes
the profile of the head slightly convex. The eyebrows are moderately
arched. The medial furrow is slight. The occipital crest is not
accentuated. Stop: Should not be pronounced. The depression is only
slight and the angle is always very open. Nose: Rather large, in line
with the muzzle, with large, well-opened, moist and cool nostrils, and
coloured black. In profile must not protrude beyond the front margin of
the lips. Muzzle: Its length is one tenth less than that of the skull.
Its depth, measured at the level of the corners of the lips, must equal
half its length. Its width decreases progressively with the convergence
of the sides of the muzzle towards the front. It is slightly chiselled
beneath the eyes. Lips: Seen from the front, the upper lips are shaped
like a semi-circle of very small radius at the lower edge of their
junction point. The lips, being only slightly developed, barely cover
the teeth, and therefore the corner of the lips is only lightly
accentuated. Consequently, the lower side profile is defined by the lips
only at the front part; in its rear part it is defined by the lower jaw
and the corner of the lips. The rims of the lips are black. Jaws: Look
strong and are normally developed.
Cheeks *** Moderately visible.
*** Not large in
relation to the size of the dog; the iris is of an ochre colour, or
chestnut brown. The eye, in lateral position, is neither deep set nor
protruding. Lively and attentive expression. Eyelid opening is almond
shaped, with black eyelid rims.
EARS *** Set very high over the zygomatic arches, they hang down but are very mobile. Triangular shape (in a V), their extremities form a narrow point, never rounded; they are small in relation to the size of the dog. For a medium size dog their length must not go beyond 12 cm (4¾ins) The ear leather is of medium width. Cropped ears are tolerated only in dogs really used as herd dogs (Not legal in Australia).
- Teeth*** White,
strong. Scissor bite. Incisors set straight, well aligned, of good size
and complete in number.
NECK *** Upper profile moderately arched. Its length is not more than eight tenths of the length of the head, which means that the neck is always shorter than the head. It is thick, very strong, muscular and always without dewlap; covered with long and dense hair forming a collar, particularly obvious in males.
*** Straight limbs
when viewed from the front and side; forequarters well balanced in
relation to the body, and the various parts of the forequarters are well
proportioned with each other. Shoulder: Long, sloping with powerful
muscles. Must be really free in movement. In length measures about one
quarter of the height at the withers. Its angulation below the
horizontal is from 50 to 60 degrees. Upperarm: Set close to the body in
its upper two thirds, with powerful muscles. Its angulation below the
horizontal varies between 55 and 60 degrees; its length measures about
30% of the height at the withers. Its position is more or less parallel
with the median plane of the body. The angle where the scapula and
humerus meet varies between 105 and 120 degrees. Elbows: Normally close
to the chest, they are covered with a soft, loose skin. Their position
must be parallel to the median plane of the body; the point of the elbow
must be on an imaginary vertical line from the shoulder blade. The angle
formed by the junction of the humerus and the radius varies between 145
and 150 degrees. Forearm: Straight and vertical, heavily boned. Its
length is slightly more than the length of the upperarm, whilst being a
little less than a third of the height at the withers. The front leg
from ground to elbow measures 53% of the height at the withers. Pastern
joint or wrist (carpus): Extends the vertical line of the forearm.
Strong, clean, smooth and of good thickness; the pisiform bone at its
back edge is clearly visible. Pastern (metacarpus): Its length must
never be less than one sixth of the foreleg measured from ground to
elbow. It is lean with a minimum of sub-cutaneous tissue. Seen from the
side, slopes slightly towards the front.
constructed, its length (measured from point of shoulder to buttock)is
one eighteenth greater than the height at the withers. Topline: Straight
from behind the withers to the rump where it becomes somewhat sloping.
Withers: Slightly above the topline; wide because of the distance
separating the shoulder blades. Back: Straight in profile, length is
about 32% of the height at the withers. The loin which merges perfectly
with the topline has a slightly curved profile with well developed
muscles. The length of the loin is one fifth of the height at the
withers, and its width is nearly equal to its length. Rump/Croup: Wide,
strong and well muscled. Its slope from the hip to the tail set is 20
degrees, increasing to 30 degrees and more if we refer to the
ileum-ischium line; that is why the rump of the Maremma and Abruzzes
shepherd dog must be qualified as sloping. Chest: Ample, descending to
the level of the elbows, deep and well rounded at mid-height. Its
circumference must be one quarter greater than the height at the withers;
its maximum width at mid-height must be at least 32% of the height at
the withers, then decreases progressively downwards, whilst retaining a
good width in the sternal region. Underline: Its lower line, from the
sternum forward, rises very slightly toward the flanks, in such a way
that the belly is slightly drawn up.
*** Seen as a whole:
Limbs are straight when seen from behind and the side. The general
aspect is in proportion with the body, and the various parts of the
hindquarters are in harmony with each other. Upper Thigh: Long, wide
with prominent muscles and the rear edge slightly convex. Its width,
measured from edge to edge, is three quarters of its length. It is
slightly angulated from top to bottom and rear to front; the angle of
the femur with the hip-bone is about 100 degrees. Lower Thigh: Its
length which is a little shorter than the upper thigh, is 32.5% of the
height at the withers. Its angulation below the horizontal is about 60
degrees. Strong bone, muscles lean and the groove in the leg well marked.
Stifle: Set perfectly in the vertical line of the hind leg, turns
neither in nor out. The angle of the femur and tibia is rather open and
varies between 135 and 140 degrees. Hock Joint: Quite thick, with broad
lateral faces. The angle varies between 140 and 150 degrees. Rear
Pastern (metatarsal): Strong, lean and broad. Its length is 31% of the
height at the withers. Dewclaws must be removed.
*** Front * Large of
roundish shape, well closed toes, covered with short, thick hair; nails
preferably black; chestnut colour is tolerated. Hind: Like the front
feet but more oval.
TAIL *** Low set due to the sloping rump, in normal stance reaching below the level of the hock. Hanging down when the dog is stationary; carried level with back line with a rather strongly hooked tip when the dog is moving. Well furnished with dense hair without fringes.
GAIT/MOVEMENT *** Walk and extended trot.
*** Skin** Tight
on all parts of the body; rather thick. Black pigmentation of the mucous
membranes, eyelids and the central and toe pads. Nature of Coat: Very
well furnished. Hair long, rather harsh to the touch, closer to straight
horse hair; flat to the body; slight wave is tolerated. The coat forms a
rich collar around the neck and feathering of limited length on the edge
of the hindquarters. It is short on the muzzle, skull, ears and front
edge of the limbs. On the body it reaches 8 cm (3 ins). The undercoat is
only abundant in winter.
COLOUR *** Solid white. Shades of ivory, pale orange or lemon are tolerated but only if not excessive.
*** Height at withers: Dogs
65-73 cm (25½ - 28¾ ins) Bitches 60-68 cm (23½ - 26¾ins) Weight:
Dogs 35-45 kg (77-99 lbs) Bitches 30-40 kg (66-88 lbs)
FAULTS *** Any departure from the foregoing constitutes a fault which when judging must be penalised according to its seriousness and its extent. The same conditions apply to dogs which pace very often and dogs whose dewclaws have not been removed.
Faults *** Head: The axes of
the skull and foreface are convergent Mouth: Serious and disfiguring
prognathism (undershot if it harms the general appearance of the muzzle;
overshot if the result of bad direction of the teeth). Tail: Rolled over
the back. Gait: Continual pacing. Size: Above or below the limits fixed
by the Standard.
Faults*** Nose: Completely
depigmented. Muzzle: Definitely convex or concave. Eyes: Moderate or
bilateral depigmentation of the eyelids. Wall-eyed. Cross-eyed. Mouth:
Overshot (when caused by lack of length of the underjaw). Tail: Tailless
or short tail, whether congenital or docked. Coat: Curly. Colour:
Isabella coat; well defined patches of Isabella or ivory colour. Black
NOTE *** Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
Source indication - Eline Jagtenberg Parcodoini
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